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Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
Mus musculus
Homo sapiens
Mus musculus
Homo sapiens
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Homo sapiens
Mus musculus
Transcription Factor Encyclopedia  BETA
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According to database searches, there appears to be several splice-variants of the Arntl1 transcript.

If or how they alter protein function is currently unknown.

Covalent modifications

The Arntl protein is reportedly SUMO-ylated[1][2], acetylated[3], and phosphorylated[4] by CK2alpha[5], CKIepsilon[6]and a MAPK [7]. It is not clear tif or how these modifications interact with one another, but SUMO-ylation and phosphorylation by CKIepsilon are associated with high levels of ARNTL transcrptional activity and acetylation and phosphorylation by CK2alpha and MAPK are associated with inhibition of ARNTL transcriptional activity.

  1. Cardone L et al. Circadian clock control by SUMOylation of BMAL1. Science, 309(5739):1390-4. (PMID 16109848)
  2. Lee J et al. Dual modification of BMAL1 by SUMO2/3 and ubiquitin promotes circadian activation of the CLOCK/BMAL1 complex. Mol. Cell. Biol., 28(19):6056-65. (PMID 18644859)
  3. Hirayama J et al. CLOCK-mediated acetylation of BMAL1 controls circadian function. Nature, 450(7172):1086-90. (PMID 18075593)
  4. Lee C et al. Posttranslational mechanisms regulate the mammalian circadian clock. Cell, 107(7):855-67. (PMID 11779462)
  1. Tamaru T et al. CK2alpha phosphorylates BMAL1 to regulate the mammalian clock. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 16(4):446-8. (PMID 19330005)
  2. Eide EJ et al. The circadian regulatory proteins BMAL1 and cryptochromes are substrates of casein kinase Iepsilon. J. Biol. Chem., 277(19):17248-54. (PMID 11875063)
  3. Sanada K et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates and negatively regulates basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor BMAL1. J. Biol. Chem., 277(1):267-71. (PMID 11687575)